Bibliographies - a quick guide

Compiling a Bibliography or a list of References at the end of a piece of work

 

A Reference List must include every source (book, chapter or article) that you have cited in your writing.

A Bibliography contains all of the above plus your background reading, where some sources have not been cited.

The first item in each reference is always the surname of the first author. These surnames are arranged in alphabetical order to form the list. If you have more than one item by a specific author they should be listed chronologically (earliest first).    

The information required varies for each reference depending whether your source is a book, an article or chapter within a book, a journal article, website or unpublished material.

You should punctuate each reference as illustrated in the examples below. You may come across variations in the recommended style of punctuation for the Harvard System, however, we recommend the following:

How to reference for:

Books

The reference must include the following:

  • Author's(s')  surnames and initials
  • Date of publication in brackets
  • Title (in italics, bold or underlined)
  • Edition (if not the first)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher

e.g.      Rayner, E. (1986). Human Development.  London: Unwin Hyman.

 

Chapters or Articles in Edited Books

The reference must include the following:

  • Contributing author's(s') surname(s) and initials
  • Date of publication in brackets
  • Title of chapter or article
  • In
  • Editor's (s) initials and surname
  • Ed. or Eds.
  • Title of book (underlined or in italics)
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Page numbers of contribution

 e.g.      Good, D. A. & Watts, F. N. (1989). Qualitative Research. In G. Parry & F.N. Watts (Eds.), Behavioural and mental health research: A handbook of skills and methods.  Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 402-410.

 

Journal Articles

The reference must include the following:

  • Author's(s') surname(s) and initials
  • Date of publication in brackets
  • Title of the article
  • Full title of the journal (in italics, bold or underlined)
  • Volume number
  • Issue number (if relevant)
  • Page numbers

e.g.      Milne, D., Britton, P.& Wilkinson, I.  (1990).  The scientist-practitioner in practice.  Clinical  Psychology Forum, 30,  27-30.

 

Websites

A) Citing individual works - www

Citation order:

  • Author's(s') surname(s) and initials- if available
  • Date in brackets
  • Title (underline or use italics) [online]
  • Available from: URL: http:// internet address/ remote path
  • Date accessed (in square brackets)

 

 e.g.  Shields, G. & Walton, G. (2001). Cite them right! [online] Available from: http://www.unn.ac.uk/central/isd/cite.htm [Accessed 10 April 2002].

 

Other Referencing Styles

With numeric referencing, cited documents are numbered in the order in which they are first referred to in the text. At every point where you want to include a reference, a number is inserted as a superscript (little number). The Reference list then includes all sources in numerical order. If you use the numerical system you will also need to include a bibliography to demonstrate your  wider research.

 

An example of referencing using the Harvard

 

Bibliography

Bosworth, D. (1992). Citing your references.  Thirsk: Underhill Press.

Good, D. A. & Watts, F. N. (1989).  Qualitative Research. In G. Parry & F.N. Watts (Eds.), Behavioural and mental health research: A handbook of skills and methods.  Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 402-410.

Holland, M. (2003). Citing References [online]. Available from: http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/academic_services/documents/Library/Citing_References.pdf [Accessed 26th July 2004].

Milne, D., Britton, P.& Wilkinson, I. (1990). The scientist-practitioner in practice. Clinical Psychology Forum, 30, 27-30.

Moondog (1991).  Quoted on Kaleidoscope, BBC Radio 4, 20 May 1991.

National Health Service Management Executive. (1991). Local research ethic committees (Health Service Guidelines HSG 97, 5).  London: Department of Health.

Northedge, A. (1990).  The Good Study Guide. Milton Keynes: The Open University.

Rayner, E. (1986). Human Development. London: Unwin Hyman.

Shields, G. & Walton, G. (2001). Cite them right! [online] Available from URL: http://www.unn.ac.uk/central/isd/cite.htm [Accessed 10 April 2002].

Trzeciak, J. &  Mackay, S.E. (1994).  Study skills for academic writing. Student's book.   Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.

Last modified: Monday, 14 January 2013, 7:05 PM