Secondary citations and references

Secondary citation/referencing is needed when you want to mention information, or a model or theory that you have read about in a source that was not the original authors work.

For example:

- you read a book  - we will call this source A, published in 2013;
- in source A on p.56 you find interesting information about a theory by another person - we call this Source B;
- you want to use this theory by Source B in your assignment.

You cannot reference directly to Source B because you have not read Source B. What should you do?
  1. You could try to find Source B and read it. Check out the portal and the Institutes online resources and services such as Google books
  2. If you cannot find Source B, you will need to include it as a secondary citation.

How do you make a secondary citation?

For example:
- Source A is a book written in 2013 by Fred Blogs;
- Source B is a 2008 journal article written by A N Other;

then your assignment in-text secondary citation can be:

According to A N Other (2008, cited in Fred Blogs 2013), the world is round.......

How about your end-of-text reference list? Should you include A N Others journal article or the book by Fred Blogs?

The answer is the book by Fred Blogs. Your end-of-text reference list should include only those sources that you have read yourself. That is why A N Other (2008) should not appear on that list.

So if you are wishing to quote something you have read in your unit workbook but have not viewed the original work yourself then the correct thing to do is:

In the assignment text:

According to Greiner's growth model (Greiner 2004, cited in  BETS Workbook 7026 2013) organisations may have a number of crises at different stages of thier growth.

In the reference list

Workbook 7026 Blueprint Education and Training Services Limited 2013

or as

Workbook 7026, 2013, Blueprint Education and Training Services Limited, Hampshire

Last modified: Monday, 11 July 2016, 3:23 PM